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Jelte Bos



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Currently I am employed by TNO, the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, working in the department of Perceptual and Cognitive Systems in Soesterberg.  In addition I am holding a chair in Vestibular Motion and Attitude Perception as an extraordinary professor at the Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.







·      Human eye movements (M.Sc. thesis)

·      Human pupil movements (Ph.D. thesis)

·      Human postural stability and (whole) body movements

·      The human visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems, with a focus on human spatial (dis)orientation, self-motion perception and vestibular or self-motion illusions, motion sickness, and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (Inaugural lecture)

·      Motion induced human health, safety, performance and comfort effects, including the effects of visual motion and stereo (3D) images

·      Motion simulation (driving, flight, and sailing)

·      Human factors, general aspects




·      Development of stimulus devices and measurement techniques for eye, pupil, and body movements (infrared reflection, magnetic induction, 3D video-oculography, motion stimulus and recording devices

·      Development of data analysis techniques

·      Fundamental research with a focus on modelling of input-output relations regarding pupil, eye, head, and body movements, including (visually induced).motion sickness

·      Clinical research on neurological, ophthalmologic, and otologic topics regarding diagnosis and therapy evaluation

·      Applied research regarding effects of motion on human wellbeing and performance analyses with a focus on motion sickness and discomfort.  This concerns motions induced physically by ships, cars, aircraft and floating or tilted buildings, as well as in simulators, and visually by real or virtual environments

·      Identifying spatial disorientation in aircraft accident and incident analyses

·      Acquisition and project management




·      Peer-reviewed papers:  25 as 1st author, 70 as co-author

·      Reports:  51 as 1st author, 61 as co-author

·      Oral presentations:  263,  of which 77 on invitation

·      H-index:  22 (Scopus), 28 (Google Scholar)

·      PhDs:  6 supervisions, 19 external examinations

·      Review panels: 15

·      Conferences organised:  2 as principal, 7 co-organised

·      Patents:  2

·      Magazine, radio and TV items: 121



Example projects


·      Offshore (wind) maintenance Joint Industry Project I and II (2015-2020).  Studies on the effect of seasickness and fatigue induced by transits of maintenance crew on their performance.  Subsidised by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, TKI Offshore Wind.

·      Physical stress in fast response craft crews (2015-2018).  A series of projects aiming to reduce the health risks associated with whole body vibration and repeated shocks aboard high speed craft.  Dutch Ministry of Defence.

·      Flying2020 (2015-2018).  A series of projects studying military flight related pilot training and human suborbital flight issues.  Dutch Ministry of Defence.

·      Operation Oriented Simulation (2014-2017). A series of projects aimed at stretching simulation capabilities with respect to extreme motions, g-loads, poor visual conditions and hypoxia, towards the operational domain.  Dutch Ministry of Defence.

·      Spatial disorientation identification tool (2014-2016).  Boeing.

·      Spatial disorientation prediction and taxonomy (2014-2015). Design and implementation of an aircraft accident analysis software tool. Boeing Commercial Aircraft.

·      Fast response craft / whole body vibration workshop (2013).  Royal Dutch Lifeboat Institution (KNRM), IJmuiden, Netherlands.

·      Improved Performance at Motion (2009-2012).  A series of projects studying motion perception, motion sickness, dynamic visual acuity, and heavy weather ship handling simulation.  Dutch Ministry of Defence

·      SILENV (2009-2012)  A multi-centre study on noise and vibration by and on-board ships.  European Union (FP6)

·      Speed@Sea (2009-2012).  Charting boat and crew vibrations.  Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

·      SUPRA (2009-2012).  A multi-centre study on simulation of upset recovery in aviation.  European Union (FP6)

·      An anti-airsickness display (2009).  Showing that an extended artificial horizon is effective against airsickness.  TNO, Netherlands.

·      An anti-seasickness display (2009).  Showing that an extended artificial horizon is effective against seasickness.  Dutch Ministry of Defence

·      Motion discomfort in tall buildings (2008).  TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.

·      SafeTug (2006-2009).  Tug operability criteria and heavy weather tug handling simulation.  Joint Industry Project MARIN, Wageningen, Netherlands

·      Wash (2005-2008).  Setting motion criteria allowing unperturbed work aboard moored ships in inland waterways. Provinces of South and North Holland, Netherlands

·      Perfect performance workshops (2005-2006).  Design and realisation of a series of courses for construction workers accommodated aboard a vessel and working on fixed oil drilling satellites.  AJS/OneGas/Shell, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

·      Vestibular adaptation to G-transitions: Motion Perception (2004-2013).  Showing a high correlation between astronauts' susceptibility to space motion sickness and sickness induced by long duration centrifugation.  European Space Agency

·      SAFECRAFTS (2004-2009).  Calculation of the passengers' health status along a rescue route and setting criteria for passenger dislocations aboard life rafts and life boats.  European Union (FP6)

·      Driver appreciation of vehicle acceleration (2004-2009).  A series of projects studying the appreciation by car drivers of accelerations and higher order time derivatives using TNO's VEHIL facility.  A car manufacturer

·      ISO International Workshop on image safety (2004).  Participation in the workshop and contribution to the workshop agreement.  Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) and the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tokyo, Japan.

·      COMPASS (2002-2006).  A multi-centre study on comfort of passengers at sea, resulting in a descriptive 3 DoF seasickness model, extending the ISO 2631-1 (1997).  European Union (FP5)

·      Motion comfort in floating houses (2001).  Motion criteria for the comfort of occupants of floating houses.  Arklantik Projects BV, Netherlands

·      Cruise ship vibration comfort (2000-2003).  Two studies into passenger discomfort caused by slamming due to new ship (hull) designs.  MARIN, Wageningen, Netherlands.

·      Motion discomfort on suspended bridges (2000).  Advice on perceived discomfort of people traversing suspended bridges.  Royal Haskoning, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

·      Roller coaster comfort and safety (1998).  Exploring a new roller coaster design with respect to human comfort and safety.  Vekoma, Vlodrop, Netherlands

·      Comfort at anchor (1998).  Setting motion criteria for comfort aboard luxury yachts.  Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and Feadship, Haarlem, Netherlands

·      Human factors in FPSO operability (1997).  A study on motion sickness, comfort and performance aboard a floating production and storage offshore vessel.  Conoco Inc, Houston, USA, and MARIN, Wageningen, Netherlands

·      Villa Volta (1996).  Incidence and prevention of motion sickness in the Villa Volta madhouse.  Efteling BV, Kaatsheuvel, Netherlands.

·      Desensitisations courses against motion sickness (1996-).  Dutch Ministry of Defence

·      Seasickness (1994-2000).  A series of projects resulting in a 6 DoF motion sickness model.  Dutch Ministry of Defence.

·      Vestibular adaptation in fighter pilots (1994-2000).  Relating eye movements measured in yaw, pitch, and roll about vertical and horizontal axes to motion sickness susceptibility.  Dutch Ministry of Defence.






·      Bos JE, Leeuwen RB van, Bruintjes TD (2018).  Bewegingsziekten in beweging.  Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 162:D1760.

·      Kuiper OX, Bos JE, Diels C (2018).  Looking forward: In-vehicle auxiliary display positioning affects carsickness.  Applied Ergonomics 68:169-175.



·      Bos JE, Ledegang WD, Grootheest HA van, Kooi FL, Houben MMJ (2017).  Motion parallax in flight simulation - An exploratory experiment.  TNO Report, Soesterberg, Netherlands, TNO-2017-R10800.

·      Bos JE, Lubeck AJA, Vente PEM (2017).  Treatment of vestibular disorders with weak asymmetric base-in prisms: An hypothesis with a focus on Meniere's disease.  Journal of Vestibular Research 27:251-263.

·      D'Amour S, Bos JE, Keshavarz B (2017).  The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness.  Experimental Brain Research 235:2811-2820.

·      Drongelen A van, Bos J, Valk P, Broek H van den (2017).  Assessing existing human factor knowledge of the offshore wind energy sector.  TNO report, Human Factors, Soesterberg, R11683.

·      Lubeck AJA, Van Ombergen A, Ahmad H, Bos JE, Wuyts FL, Bronstein A, Arshad Q (2017).  Differential effect of visual motion adaptation upon visual cortical excitability.  Journal of Neurophysiology 117:903-909.



·      Diels C, Bos JE (2016).  Self-driving carsickness.  Applied Ergonomics 53:374-382.

·      Diels C, Bos JE, Hottelart K, Reilhac P (2016).  Motion sickness in automated vehicles: The elephant in the room. In: Lecture notes in mobility - Road vehicle automation 3.  Meyer G, Beiker S (eds) Springer, Switzerland. pp. 121-129.

·      Houben MMJ, Groen EL, Bos JE (2016).  Perceptual and personalized motion cueing.  TNO report, Perceptual and Cognitive Systems, Soesterberg, Netherlands R10485.

·      Kurt RE, Khalid H, Turan O, Houben M, Bos J, Helvacioglu IH (2016).  Towards human-oriented norms: Considering the effects of noise and vibration exposure on board ships.  Ocean Engineering 120:101-107.

·      Lubeck AJA, Bos JE, Stins JF (2016).  Framing visual roll-motion affects postural sway and the subjective visual vertical. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 78:2612-2620.

·      Lubeck AJA, Bos JE, Stins JF (2016).  Equally moved and not really sick from viewing 2D and 3D motion stimuli on a TV screen.  Displays 41:9-15.

·      Mumaw RJ, Groen E, Fucke L, Anderson R, Bos J, Houben M (2016).  A new tool for analyzing the potential influence of vestibular illusions. ISASI Forum 49:6-12.

·      Oprins EAPB, Beurden MH van, Valk PJL, Bos JE, Houben MMJ (2016).  Training for unexpected events - Effectiveness of helicopter underwater egress training (HUET).  TNO report, Soesterberg, Netherlands R10581.

·      Van Ombergen A, Lubeck AJ, Van Rompaey V, Maes LK, Stins JF, Van de Heyning PH, Wuyts FL, Bos JE (2016).  The effect of optokinetic stimulation on perceptual and postural symptoms in visual vestibular mismatch patients.  PLoS ONE 11:e0154528.



·      Bos JE (2015).  Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction.  Journal of Vestibular Research 25:23-33.

·      Bos JE, Correia Gracio BJ (2015).  Perceived radial translation during centrifugation.  Journal of Vestibular Research 25:119-124.

·      Bos JE, Valk PJL, Stel I (2015).  Schokbelasting van FRISC-bemanningen - Een studie naar de haalbaarheid van dosimetrie.   TNO report Soesterberg, Netherlands, 2015 R10316.

·      Lubeck AJA, Bos JE, Stins JF (2015).  Motion in images is essential to cause motion sickness symptoms, but not to increase postural sway.  Displays 38:55-61.

·      Lubeck AJA, Bos JE, Stins JF (2015).  Interaction between depth order and density affects vection and postural sway.  PLoS ONE 10:e0144034.



·      Correia Gracio BJ, Bos JE, Paassen MM van, Mulder M (2014).  Perceptual scaling of visual and inertial cues - effects of field of view, image size, depth cues, and degree of freedom.  Experimental Brain Research 232:637-646.

·      Wieringa FP, Bouma H, Eendebak PT, Basten JP van, Beerlage HP, Smits GAHJ, Bos JE (2014).  Improved depth perception with three-dimensional auxiliary display and computer generated three-dimensional panoramic overviews in robot-assisted laparoscopy.  Journal of Medical Imaging, online 16 May.

·      Winters SM, Bos JE, Klis SFL (2014).  Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.  Journal of Vestibular Research 24:9-15.



·      Bos JE, Ledegang WD, Lubeck AJA, Stins JF (2013).  Cineramasickness and postural instability.  Ergonomics 56:1430-1436.

·      Correia Gracio BJ, Winkel KN de, Groen E, Wentink M, Bos JE (2013).  The time constant of the somatogravic illusion. Experimental Brain Research 224:313-321.



·      Correia Gracio BJ, Bos JE (2012).  Measuring dynamics of the subjective vertical and tilt using a joystick.  Journal of Vestibular Research 22:181-189.

·      Bos JE, Houben MMJ, Lindenberg J (2012).  Optimising human performance by reducing motion sickness and enhancing situation awareness with an intuitive artificial 3D Earth-fixed visual reference.  Proc. Maritime Systems and Technology Conference, MAST2012, Malmo Sweden, 11-13 September pp.1-10.



·      Bos JE (2011).  Gaan, staan, kijken en kokken met het evenwichtsorgaan.  Inaugural lecture, 17 March, VU University, Amsterdam.

·      Bos JE (2011).  Less sickness with more motion and related issues.  TNO report, TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, Netherlands TNO-DV 2011 A154:1-24.

·      Bos JE (2011).  Nuancing the relationship between motion sickness and postural stability.  Displays 32:189-193.

·      Bos JE (2011).  Visual image safety.  Preface of the guest editor to the special issue.  Displays 32:151-152.

·      Brouwer AM, Bos JE, Hogervorst MA, Ledegang W (2011).  Dynamic visual acuity.  TNO report, TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, Netherlands TNO-DV 2011 A166.

·      Emmerik ML van, Vries SC de, Bos JE (2011).  Internal and external fields of view affect cybersickness.  Displays 32:169-174.

·      Feenstra PJ, Bos JE, Gent RNHW van (2011).  A visual display enhancing comfort by counteracting airsickness.  Displays 32:194-200.

·      Groen EL, Bos JE, Nooij SAE (2011).  A rationale for space motion sickness.  Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 82:737-738.

·      Khalid H, Turan O, Bos JE (2011).  Application of the subjective vertical-horizontal-conflict physiological motion sickness model to the field trials of contemporary vessels.  Ocean Engineering Journal 38:22-33.

·      Nooij SAE, Vanspauwen R, Bos JE, Wuyts FL (2011).  A re-investigation of the role of utricular asymmetries in space motion sickness.  Journal of Vestibular Research 21:141-151.



·      Bos JE, Vries SC de, Emmerik ML van, Groen EL (2010).  The effect of internal and external fields of view on visually induced motion sickness.  Applied Ergonomics 41:516-521.

·      Houben MMJ, Bos JE (2010).  Reduced seasickness by an artificial 3D Earth-fixed visual reference. In: Proc. Int. Conf. on Human Performance at Sea, HPAS2010, Glasgow, UK, 16-18 June. Turan O, Bos J, Stark J, Colwell JL (eds) Univ. Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. :263-270.

·      Mery N, Bos JE, Corrignan P (2010).  Health performance indicators for the assessment of life-saving appliances.  In: Proc. Int. Conf. on Human Performance at Sea, HPAS2010, Glasgow, UK, 16-18 June. Turan O, Bos J, Stark J, Colwell JL (eds) Univ. Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. pp. 73-79.



·      ABCD (2008).  High speed craft human factors engineering design guide.  ABCD Technical Report ABCD-TR-08-01 V1.0.

·      Bos JE, Bles W, Groen EL (2008).  A theory on visually induced motion sickness.  Displays 29:47-57.

·      Groen EL, Bos JE (2008).  Simulator sickness depends on frequency of the simulator motion mismatch: An observation.  Presence 17:584-593.

·      Nooij SAE, Bos JE, Groen EL (2008).  Orientation of Listing's plane after hypergravity in humans.  Journal of Vestibular Research 18:97-105.

·      Nooij SAE, Bos JE, Groen EL (2008).  Velocity storage activity is affected after sustained centrifugation: a relationship with spatial disorientation.  Experimental Brain Research 190:165-177.

·      Simons R, Bos J (2008).  Middelen tegen bewegingsziekte: effectiviteit en veiligheid.  Nederlands Militair Geneeskundig Tijdschrift 61:77-90.



·      Bos JE, Damala D, Lewis C, Ganguly A, Turan O (2007).  Susceptibility to seasickness.  Ergonomics 50:890-901.

·      Bos JE, Hout I van der, Keuning JA (2007).  Golfhinder: Een relatie tussen bewegingen van en hinder op afgemeerde schepen [Wash hindrance: A relationship between motions of and hindrance on moored ships].  TNO-report, TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, Netherlands TNO-DV 2007 C461.

·      Nooij SAE, Bos JE, Groen EL, Bles W, Ockels WJ (2007).  Space sickness on Earth.  Microgravity Science and Technology 19:113-117.

·      Nooij SAE, Bos JE (2007).  Sickness induced by head movements after different centrifugal Gx-loads and durations.  Journal of Vestibular Research 17:323-332.



·      Bos JE (2005).  Wat zijn de verschijnselen van wagenziekte bij jonge kinderen en wat is de therapie? [What are the symptoms of car sickness in young children, and what should be the appropriate therapy?] Vademecum Permanente Nascholing Huisartsen 23(31) 4 oktober.

·      Bos JE, Erp J van, Groen EL, Veen HJ van (2005).  Vestibulo-tactile interactions regarding motion perception and eye movements in yaw.  Journal of Vestibular Research 15:149-160.

·      Bos JE, MacKinnon SN, Patterson A (2005).  Motion sickness symptoms in a ship motion simulator: effects of inside, outside, and no view.  Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 76:1111-1118.

·      ISO (2005).  International Workshop Agreement 3 on Image Safety - Reducing the incidence of undesirable biomedical effects caused by visual image sequences.  International Organisation of Standardisation IWA3:2005(E).



·      Bos JE (2004).  How motions make people sick such that they perform less: a model based approach.  Proc. NATO RTO/AVT-110 Symposium on Habitability of Combat and Transport Vehicles: Noise, Vibration and Motion.  Prague, CZ, 4-7 October:27.1-11.

·      Bos JE, Bles W (2004).  Motion sickness induced by optokinetic drums.  Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 75:172-174.



·      Golding JF, Bles W, Bos JE, Haynes T, Gresty MA (2003).  Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment: active suspension systems vs.  active passengers.  Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 74:220-227.



·      Bos JE, Bles W, Graaf B de (2002).  Eye movements to yaw, pitch, and roll about vertical and horizontal axes: adaptation and motion sickness.  Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 73:436-444.

·      Bos JE, Bles W (2002).  Theoretical considerations on canal-otolith interaction and an observer model.  Biological Cybernetics 86:191-207.



·      Bles W, Bos JE, Kruit H (2000).  Motion sickness.  Current Opinion in Neurology 13:19-25.



·      Groen E, Bos J, Graaf B de, Bles W (1999).  Otolith signal processing and motion sickness.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 871:406-409.

·      Groen E, Bos JE, Graaf B de (1999).  Contribution of the otoliths to the human torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex.  Journal of Vestibular Research 9:27-36.

·      Wit G de, Vente PEM, Bos JE, Bles W (1999).  Het snelle labyrint ten dienste van het trage oog.  [The fast labyrinth for the benefit of the slow eye.] Nederlands Tijdschrift KNO-Heelkunde 5:7-10.



·      Bles W, Bos JE, Graaf B de, Groen E, Wertheim AH (1998).  Motion sickness: only one provocative conflict?  Brain Research Bulletin 47:481-487.

·      Bles W, Groen E, Bos JE, Jong V de, Lok J (1998).  Cervically induced ocular torsion: Physiological and clinical aspects.  Acta Otolaryngologica 118:613-617.

·      Bos JE, Bles W (1998).  Modelling motion sickness and subjective vertical mismatch detailed for vertical motions.  Brain Research Bulletin 47:537-542.

·      Graaf B de, Bles W, Bos JE (1998).  Roll motion stimuli: Sensory conflict, perceptual weighting and motion sickness.  Brain Research Bulletin 47:489-495.

·      Vente PEM, Bos JE, Wit G de (1998).  Motion sickness amelioration induced by prism spectacles.  Brain Research Bulletin 47:503-505.

·      Wertheim AH, Bos JE, Bles W (1998).  Contributions of roll and pitch to sea sickness.  Brain Research Bulletin 47:517-524.



·      Bos JE, Graaf B de, Bles W, Wertheim AH (1996).  Oogstand, hoofdstand en bewegingsziekte.  [Eye position, head position, and motion sickness.] Klinische Fysica 1996/4:11-16.

·      Bos JE, Graaf B de, Groen E (1996).  Otolith directional sensitivity and ocular torsion.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 781:583-584.

·      Graaf B de, Bos JE, Groen E (1996).  Saccular impact on ocular torsion.  Brain Research Bulletin 40:321-330.

·      Groen E, Bos JE, Nacken PFM, Graaf B de (1996).  Determination of ocular torsion by means of automatic pattern recognition.  IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 43:471-479.

·      Groen E, Graaf B de, Bles W, Bos JE (1996).  Ocular torsion before and after 1 hour 3Gx centrifugation.  Brain Research Bulletin 40:331-335.



·      Bos JE, Graaf B de.  Ocular torsion quantification with video images (1994).  IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 41:351-357.

·      Graaf B de, Bos JE, Wich S, Bles W (1994).  Arthrokinetic and vestibular information enhance smooth ocular tracking during linear (self-)motion.  Experimental Brain Research 101:147-152.



·      Bollen E, Bax J, Dijk JG van, Koning M, Bos JE, Kramer CGS, Velde EA van der (1993).  Variability of the main sequence.  Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences 34:3700-3704.



·      Bollen E, Heijer JC den, Tolsma MHJ, Bellari S, Bos JE, Wintzen AR (1992).  Eye movements in myotonic dystrophy.  Brain 115:445-450.



·      Bos JE (1991).  Detection of the pupil constriction latency.  Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 29:529-534.

·      Bos JE (1991).  Dynamics of the human pupillary system.  An investigation into temporal aspects of light-induced constriction-related pupil behaviour, including contrast sensitivity and oscillations.  Ph.D. Thesis, VU University Amsterdam. VU University Press, Amsterdam.

·      Heijer JC den, Dijk JG van, Bollen ELEM, Bos JE, Wintzen AR (1991).  Assessment of autonomic function in myotonic dystrophy.  Journal of  Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 54:531-534.

·      Lanting P, Strijers RLM, Bos JE, Faes TJC, Heimans JJ (1991).  The cause of increased pupillary light relex latencies in diabetic patients: The relationship between pupillary light reflex and visual evoked potential latencies.  Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 78:111-115.



·      Bos JE, Fock JM, Reulen JPH, Lith GHM van (1990).  Pupil constriction and visual evoked potential latency in optic neuritis.  Neuro-Ophthalmology 10:187-196.

·      Lanting P, Bos JE, Aartsen J, Schuman L, Reichert-Thoen J, Heimans JJ (1990).  Assessment of pupillary light reflex latency and darkness adapted pupil size in control subjects and in diabetic patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.  Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 53:912-914.

·      Longtin A, Milton JG, Bos JE, Mackey MC (1990).  Noise and critical behaviour of the pupil light reflex at oscillation onset.  Physical Review A 41:6992-7005.



·      Bles W, Bos JE, Furrer R, Graaf B de, Hosman RJAW, Kortschot HW, Krol JR, Kuipers A, Marcus JT, Messerschmid E, Ockels WJ, Oosterveld WJ, Smit J, Wertheim AH, Wientjes CJE (1989).  Space adaptation syndrome induced by a long duration +3Gx centrifuge run.  TNO report, TNO Institute for Sensory Physiology, Soesterberg Netherlands. TNO-IZF 1989-25.



·      Bos JE (1988). Clinical quantitative pupillometry: the latency of the pupil constriction as measured with the IRIS system (preliminary results).  Neuro-Ophthalmology 8:299-305.

·      Bos JE, Reulen JPH, Boersma HJ, Ditters EJ (1988).  The theory of Double Magnetic Induction (DMI).for measuring eye movements: correction for nonlinearity and simple calibration in two dimensions.  IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 35:733-739.

·      Lanting P, Heimans JJ, Faes TJC, Rompelman O, Bos JE (1988).  Quantification of pupillary lightreflex and heart-rate variability in diabetes mellitus.  Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 90:294-295.

·      Reulen JPH, Marcus JT, Bos JE, Tiesinga G, Koops D, Boshuizen K, Gilst M van (1988).  Stimulation and recording of dynamic pupillary reflexes : the IRIS system, part II.  Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 26:27-32.

·      Reulen JPH, Marcus JT, Koops D, Vries FR de, Tiesinga G, Boshuizen K, Bos JE (1988).  Precise recording of eye movements: the IRIS system, part I.  Medical and Biological Engineering & Computing 26:20-26.



·      Reulen JPH, Heuningen R van, Tiesinga G, Bos JE (1986).  Computerised eye-movement processor for clinical applications: basic considerations and design.  Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 24:209-215.





At TNO we have developed and validated a rating scale giving a single number to the level of sickness in terms of several symptoms particularly associated with motion sickness (Reason & Brand, 1975).  Given its focus on sickness symptoms, this misery scale (MISC) does not differentiate between possible causes of motion sickness, i.e., whether induced physically, visually, or in VEs or simulators with combined physical and visual motion.  It can hence be applied in studies on carsickness, airsickness, seasickness, cybersickness, space sickness or whatever other type of motion sickness (see also the link to Motion Perception and Sickness, Eye Movevements and Human Performance).


The MISC concerns an 11-point ordinal scale.  When familiarised with it, subjects can easily report on their feelings of misery within a second, allowing repeated application within experimental trials. This avoids the need for filling out a questionnaire, such as the by far most often used Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ, Kennedy et al., 1993).  Although the SSQ takes more time to deploy, it offers the advantage of giving ratings for ocular and disorienting effects in addition to a nausea rating.  A disadvantage, however, may be that it does so using a limited number of predefined symptoms, in which the “nausea” symptoms also include ocular effects that may not be present when, e.g., experiencing sickness induced by physical motion with eyes closed.


Although slightly different versions of the MISC have been used before, the version used most often has been described first in Bos et al. (2005), and has repeatedly been used since.  These later studies focused on physical motion (Bos et al., 2005; Bos, 2015; Nooij & Bos, 2007, Nooij et al., 2011; Kuiper et al., 2018), on visual motion (Bos et al., 2010, 2013; Van Emmerik et al., 2011; Lubeck et al., 2015, 2016a, 2016b), and on combined physical and visual motion (Bos et al., 2005; Correia Gracio et al., 2014; Feenstra et al., 2011).


For more information on the use of this scale you can get in contact with me as shown below.


Kennedy RS, Lane NE, Berbaum KS, Lilienthal MG (1993).  Simulator sickness questionnaire: an enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness.  International Journal of Aviation Psychology 3:203-220.

Reason JT, Brand JJ (1975).  Motion sickness.  Academic Press, London.





You can find me on LinkedIn and ResearchGate or





·      Dutch and Flemish Vestibular Society at

·      De Groeten van MAX, broadcast on travel sickness

·      VARA's Kassa! broadcast on the side effects of watching 3D movies.

·      NTR's Klokhuis broadcast on motion sickness (in Dutch)

·      Paper presented at VIMS2013: Bos JE (2013). Visually induced and modulated, but vestibularly caused motion sickness. 4th Int. Symp. On Visual IMage Safety (VIMS2013), Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, 3-4 September 2013

·      The vestibulo-collic reflex by my chicken, part 1, real time (AVI / MOV)

·      The vestibulo-collic reflex by my chicken, part 2, in slow motion (AVI / MOV)

·      The vestibulo-collic reflex by my chicken, part 3 (AVI / MOV)

·      The vestibulo-collic reflex by Mercedes' chickens

·      The vestibulo-cocular reflex, postrotatory nystagmus

·      Just for fun: blowing a bubble captured with 210 and played back with 30 frames/sec (the sting being in the tail) (AVI / MOV)





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Last updated 2018-03-28